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While, as shown with creatures such as hydra and planarian worms , it is indeed possible for a creature to be biologically immortal , it is not known if it will be possible for humans in the near-future.
Mind uploading is the transference of brain states from a human brain to an alternative medium providing similar functionality. Assuming the process to be possible and repeatable, this would provide immortality to the computation of the original brain, as predicted by futurists such as Ray Kurzweil.
The "soul" itself has different meanings and is not used in the same way in different religions and different denominations of a religion.
For example, various branches of Christianity have disagreeing views on the soul's immortality and its relation to the body.
Alchemists strive to solve the mystery of immortality with the Philosopher's Stone and elixir of life. They believe through the application of alchemical processes, the physical body can be maintained through infinity, not dying by any natural diseases, only finding an end through physical destruction of the body.
Theoretically if one could stay out of harm's way one could live forever. Physical immortality is a state of life that allows a person to avoid death and maintain conscious thought.
It can mean the unending existence of a person from a physical source other than organic life, such as a computer. Active pursuit of physical immortality can either be based on scientific trends, such as cryonics , digital immortality , breakthroughs in rejuvenation or predictions of an impending technological singularity , or because of a spiritual belief, such as those held by Rastafarians or Rebirthers.
There are three main causes of death: aging , disease and physical trauma. Aubrey de Grey , a leading researcher in the field,  defines aging as "a collection of cumulative changes to the molecular and cellular structure of an adult organism , which result in essential metabolic processes, but which also, once they progress far enough, increasingly disrupt metabolism, resulting in pathology and death.
Eliminating aging would require finding a solution to each of these causes, a program de Grey calls engineered negligible senescence.
There is also a huge body of knowledge indicating that change is characterized by the loss of molecular fidelity. Disease is theoretically surmountable via technology.
In short, it is an abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism, something the body shouldn't typically have to deal with its natural make up.
The mechanisms by which other diseases do damage are becoming better understood. Sophisticated methods of detecting diseases early are being developed.
Preventative medicine is becoming better understood. Neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's may soon be curable with the use of stem cells.
Breakthroughs in cell biology and telomere research are leading to treatments for cancer. Vaccines are being researched for AIDS and tuberculosis.
Genes associated with type 1 diabetes and certain types of cancer have been discovered, allowing for new therapies to be developed.
Artificial devices attached directly to the nervous system may restore sight to the blind. Drugs are being developed to treat a myriad of other diseases and ailments.
Physical trauma would remain as a threat to perpetual physical life, as an otherwise immortal person would still be subject to unforeseen accidents or catastrophes.
The speed and quality of paramedic response remains a determining factor in surviving severe trauma.
Being the seat of consciousness , the brain cannot be risked to trauma if a continuous physical life is to be maintained.
This aversion to trauma risk to the brain would naturally result in significant behavioral changes that would render physical immortality undesirable for some people.
Organisms otherwise unaffected by these causes of death would still face the problem of obtaining sustenance whether from currently available agricultural processes or from hypothetical future technological processes in the face of changing availability of suitable resources as environmental conditions change.
After avoiding aging, disease, and trauma, you could still starve to death. If there is no limitation on the degree of gradual mitigation of risk then it is possible that the cumulative probability of death over an infinite horizon is less than certainty , even when the risk of fatal trauma in any finite period is greater than zero.
Mathematically, this is an aspect of achieving " actuarial escape velocity ". Biological immortality is an absence of aging.
Specifically it is the absence of a sustained increase in rate of mortality as a function of chronological age.
A cell or organism that does not experience aging, or ceases to age at some point, is biologically immortal.
Biologists have chosen the word "immortal" to designate cells that are not limited by the Hayflick limit , where cells no longer divide because of DNA damage or shortened telomeres.
The first and still most widely used immortal cell line is HeLa , developed from cells taken from the malignant cervical tumor of Henrietta Lacks without her consent in Prior to the work of Leonard Hayflick , there was the erroneous belief fostered by Alexis Carrel that all normal somatic cells are immortal.
By preventing cells from reaching senescence one can achieve biological immortality; telomeres, a "cap" at the end of DNA, are thought to be the cause of cell aging.
Every time a cell divides the telomere becomes a bit shorter; when it is finally worn down, the cell is unable to split and dies.
Telomerase is an enzyme which rebuilds the telomeres in stem cells and cancer cells, allowing them to replicate an infinite number of times.
On the other hand, scientists hope to be able to grow organs with the help of stem cells, allowing organ transplants without the risk of rejection, another step in extending human life expectancy.
These technologies are the subject of ongoing research, and are not yet realized. Life defined as biologically immortal is still susceptible to causes of death besides aging, including disease and trauma, as defined above.
Notable immortal species include:. As the existence of biologically immortal species demonstrates, there is no thermodynamic necessity for senescence: a defining feature of life is that it takes in free energy from the environment and unloads its entropy as waste.
Living systems can even build themselves up from seed, and routinely repair themselves. Aging is therefore presumed to be a byproduct of evolution , but why mortality should be selected for remains a subject of research and debate.
Programmed cell death and the telomere "end replication problem" are found even in the earliest and simplest of organisms.
Some scientists believe that boosting the amount or proportion of telomerase in the body, a naturally forming enzyme that helps maintain the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes , could prevent cells from dying and so may ultimately lead to extended, healthier lifespans.
In normal circumstances, without the presence of telomerase, if a cell divides repeatedly, at some point all the progeny will reach their Hayflick limit.
With the presence of telomerase, each dividing cell can replace the lost bit of DNA , and any single cell can then divide unbounded.
While this unbounded growth property has excited many researchers, caution is warranted in exploiting this property, as exactly this same unbounded growth is a crucial step in enabling cancerous growth.
If an organism can replicate its body cells faster, then it would theoretically stop aging. Embryonic stem cells express telomerase, which allows them to divide repeatedly and form the individual.
In adults, telomerase is highly expressed in cells that need to divide regularly e. Technological immortality is the prospect for much longer life spans made possible by scientific advances in a variety of fields: nanotechnology, emergency room procedures, genetics, biological engineering , regenerative medicine , microbiology , and others.
Contemporary life spans in the advanced industrial societies are already markedly longer than those of the past because of better nutrition, availability of health care, standard of living and bio-medical scientific advances.
Technological immortality predicts further progress for the same reasons over the near term. An important aspect of current scientific thinking about immortality is that some combination of human cloning , cryonics or nanotechnology will play an essential role in extreme life extension.
Robert Freitas , a nanorobotics theorist, suggests tiny medical nanorobots could be created to go through human bloodstreams, find dangerous things like cancer cells and bacteria, and destroy them.
This supports the theory that we will be able to continually create biological or synthetic replacement parts to replace damaged or dying ones.
Future advances in nanomedicine could give rise to life extension through the repair of many processes thought to be responsible for aging.
Eric Drexler , one of the founders of nanotechnology , postulated cell repair devices, including ones operating within cells and utilizing as yet hypothetical biological machines , in his book Engines of Creation.
Raymond Kurzweil , a futurist and transhumanist , stated in his book The Singularity Is Near that he believes that advanced medical nanorobotics could completely remedy the effects of aging by Hibbs suggested that certain repair machines might one day be reduced in size to the point that it would, in theory, be possible to as Feynman put it " swallow the doctor ".
Cryonics , the practice of preserving organisms either intact specimens or only their brains for possible future revival by storing them at cryogenic temperatures where metabolism and decay are almost completely stopped, can be used to 'pause' for those who believe that life extension technologies will not develop sufficiently within their lifetime.
Ideally, cryonics would allow clinically dead people to be brought back in the future after cures to the patients' diseases have been discovered and aging is reversible.
Modern cryonics procedures use a process called vitrification which creates a glass-like state rather than freezing as the body is brought to low temperatures.
This process reduces the risk of ice crystals damaging the cell-structure, which would be especially detrimental to cell structures in the brain, as their minute adjustment evokes the individual's mind.
One idea that has been advanced involves uploading an individual's habits and memories via direct mind-computer interface.
The individual's memory may be loaded to a computer or to a new organic body. Extropian futurists like Moravec and Kurzweil have proposed that, thanks to exponentially growing computing power, it will someday be possible to upload human consciousness onto a computer system, and exist indefinitely in a virtual environment.
This could be accomplished via advanced cybernetics, where computer hardware would initially be installed in the brain to help sort memory or accelerate thought processes.
Components would be added gradually until the person's entire brain functions were handled by artificial devices, avoiding sharp transitions that would lead to issues of identity , thus running the risk of the person to be declared dead and thus not be a legitimate owner of his or her property.
After this point, the human body could be treated as an optional accessory and the program implementing the person could be transferred to any sufficiently powerful computer.
Another possible mechanism for mind upload is to perform a detailed scan of an individual's original, organic brain and simulate the entire structure in a computer.
What level of detail such scans and simulations would need to achieve to emulate awareness, and whether the scanning process would destroy the brain, is still to be determined.
An uploaded mind would only be a copy of the original mind, and not the conscious mind of the living entity associated in such a transfer.
Without a simultaneous upload of consciousness, the original living entity remains mortal, thus not achieving true immortality.
Whatever the route to mind upload, persons in this state could then be considered essentially immortal, short of loss or traumatic destruction of the machines that maintained them.
A modern day example of Mind-to-computer immortality is displayed in Netflix's show Altered Carbon.
In this show, immortality has been achieved through the use of "stacks" modules that contain the consciousness of a person and is transferable.
Altered Carbon displays both the ethics and qualities of enabling such a use of immortality. However, a main point to focus on here is that the timeline in the show is hundreds of years into the future.
This is important to note because in today's time, millions of dollars are being poured into this venture with very little success.
Millionaires like Tesla's Elon Musk , are currently working on the "mind uploading" process. As discussed above, a common theme correlated with "mind uploading" is cybernetics, in which this case, a "stack" could be considered cybernetic.
Transforming a human into a cyborg can include brain implants or extracting a human processing unit and placing it in a robotic life-support system.
Even replacing biological organs with robotic ones could increase life span e. Some people believe that such modifications would make one impervious to aging and disease and theoretically immortal unless killed or destroyed.
As late as , the editorial staff of the Syntopicon found in their compilation of the Great Books of the Western World , that "The philosophical issue concerning immortality cannot be separated from issues concerning the existence and nature of man's soul.
Immortality in ancient Greek religion originally always included an eternal union of body and soul as can be seen in Homer , Hesiod , and various other ancient texts.
The soul was considered to have an eternal existence in Hades, but without the body the soul was considered dead. Although almost everybody had nothing to look forward to but an eternal existence as a disembodied dead soul, a number of men and women were considered to have gained physical immortality and been brought to live forever in either Elysium , the Islands of the Blessed , heaven, the ocean or literally right under the ground.
Some were considered to have died and been resurrected before they achieved physical immortality. Asclepius was killed by Zeus only to be resurrected and transformed into a major deity.
In some versions of the Trojan War myth, Achilles , after being killed, was snatched from his funeral pyre by his divine mother Thetis, resurrected, and brought to an immortal existence in either Leuce , the Elysian plains, or the Islands of the Blessed.
Memnon , who was killed by Achilles, seems to have received a similar fate. Alcmene , Castor , Heracles , and Melicertes were also among the figures sometimes considered to have been resurrected to physical immortality.
According to Herodotus' Histories , the 7th century BC sage Aristeas of Proconnesus was first found dead, after which his body disappeared from a locked room.
Later he was found not only to have been resurrected but to have gained immortality. The philosophical idea of an immortal soul was a belief first appearing with either Pherecydes or the Orphics , and most importantly advocated by Plato and his followers.
This, however, never became the general norm in Hellenistic thought. As may be witnessed even into the Christian era, not least by the complaints of various philosophers over popular beliefs, many or perhaps most traditional Greeks maintained the conviction that certain individuals were resurrected from the dead and made physically immortal and that others could only look forward to an existence as disembodied and dead, though everlasting, souls.
The parallel between these traditional beliefs and the later resurrection of Jesus was not lost on the early Christians, as Justin Martyr argued: "when we say Jesus Christ, our teacher, was crucified and died, and rose again, and ascended into heaven, we propose nothing different from what you believe regarding those whom you consider sons of Zeus.
According to one Tibetan Buddhist teaching, Dzogchen , individuals can transform the physical body into an immortal body of light called the rainbow body.
Christian theology holds that Adam and Eve lost physical immortality for themselves and all their descendants in the Fall of man , although this initial "imperishability of the bodily frame of man" was "a preternatural condition".
Wright , a theologian and former Bishop of Durham , has said many people forget the physical aspect of what Jesus promised. He told Time : "Jesus' resurrection marks the beginning of a restoration that he will complete upon his return.
Part of this will be the resurrection of all the dead , who will 'awake', be embodied and participate in the renewal.
Wright says John Polkinghorne , a physicist and a priest, has put it this way: 'God will download our software onto his hardware until the time he gives us new hardware to run the software again for ourselves.
Hindus believe in an immortal soul which is reincarnated after death. According to Hinduism, people repeat a process of life, death, and rebirth in a cycle called samsara.
If they live their life well, their karma improves and their station in the next life will be higher, and conversely lower if they live their life poorly.
After many life times of perfecting its karma, the soul is freed from the cycle and lives in perpetual bliss. There is no place of eternal torment in Hinduism, although if a soul consistently lives very evil lives, it could work its way down to the very bottom of the cycle.
There are explicit renderings in the Upanishads alluding to a physically immortal state brought about by purification, and sublimation of the 5 elements that make up the body.
For example, in the Shvetashvatara Upanishad Chapter 2, Verse 12 , it is stated "When earth, water, fire, air and sky arise, that is to say, when the five attributes of the elements, mentioned in the books on yoga, become manifest then the yogi's body becomes purified by the fire of yoga and he is free from illness, old age and death.
Another view of immortality is traced to the Vedic tradition by the interpretation of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi :.
That man indeed whom these contacts do not disturb, who is even-minded in pleasure and pain, steadfast, he is fit for immortality, O best of men.
To Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the verse means, "Once a man has become established in the understanding of the permanent reality of life, his mind rises above the influence of pleasure and pain.
Such an unshakable man passes beyond the influence of death and in the permanent phase of life: he attains eternal life A man established in the understanding of the unlimited abundance of absolute existence is naturally free from existence of the relative order.
This is what gives him the status of immortal life. An Indian Tamil saint known as Vallalar claimed to have achieved immortality before disappearing forever from a locked room in The traditional concept of an immaterial and immortal soul distinct from the body was not found in Judaism before the Babylonian exile , but developed as a result of interaction with Persian and Hellenistic philosophies.
Accordingly, the Hebrew word nephesh , although translated as "soul" in some older English Bibles, actually has a meaning closer to "living being".
The only Hebrew word traditionally translated "soul" nephesh in English language Bibles refers to a living, breathing conscious body, rather than to an immortal soul.
This doctrine of resurrection is mentioned explicitly only in Daniel —4 although it may be implied in several other texts.
New theories arose concerning Sheol during the intertestamental period. The views about immortality in Judaism is perhaps best exemplified by the various references to this in Second Temple period.
The concept of resurrection of the physical body is found in 2 Maccabees , according to which it will happen through recreation of the flesh.
The New Testament claims that the Pharisees believed in the resurrection, but does not specify whether this included the flesh or not.
Rabbinic Judaism claims that the righteous dead will be resurrected in the Messianic Age with the coming of the messiah. They will then be granted immortality in a perfect world.
The wicked dead, on the other hand, will not be resurrected at all. This is not the only Jewish belief about the afterlife. The Tanakh is not specific about the afterlife, so there are wide differences in views and explanations among believers.
It is repeatedly stated in the Lüshi Chunqiu that death is unavoidable. A list of good deeds and sins are tallied to determine whether or not a mortal is worthy.
Spiritual immortality in this definition allows the soul to leave the earthly realms of afterlife and go to pure realms in the Taoist cosmology.
Zoroastrians believe that on the fourth day after death, the human soul leaves the body and the body remains as an empty shell.
Souls would go to either heaven or hell; these concepts of the afterlife in Zoroastrianism may have influenced Abrahamic religions.
The Persian word for "immortal" is associated with the month "Amurdad", meaning "deathless" in Persian, in the Iranian calendar near the end of July.
The month of Amurdad or Ameretat is celebrated in Persian culture as ancient Persians believed the "Angel of Immortality" won over the "Angel of Death" in this month.
Alcmaeon of Croton argued that the soul is continuously and ceaselessly in motion. The exact form of his argument is unclear, but it appears to have influenced Plato, Aristotle, and other later writers.
Plato 's Phaedo advances four arguments for the soul's immortality: . Plotinus first argues that the soul is simple , then notes that a simple being cannot decompose.
Many subsequent philosophers have argued both that the soul is simple and that it must be immortal. The tradition arguably culminates with Moses Mendelssohn 's Phaedon.
Theodore Metochites argues that part of the soul's nature is to move itself, but that a given movement will cease only if what causes the movement is separated from the thing moved — an impossibility if they are one and the same.
Avicenna argued for the distinctness of the soul and the body, and the incorruptibility of the former. The full argument for the immortality of the soul and Thomas Aquinas ' elaboration of Aristotelian theory is found in Question 75 of the First Part of the Summa Theologica.
Descartes does not address the possibility that the soul might suddenly disappear. In early work, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz endorses a version of the argument from the simplicity of the soul to its immortality, but like his predecessors, he does not address the possibility that the soul might suddenly disappear.
In his monadology he advances a sophisticated novel argument for the immortality of monads. Moses Mendelssohn 's Phaedon is a defense of the simplicity and immortality of the soul.
It is a series of three dialogues, revisiting the Platonic dialogue Phaedo , in which Socrates argues for the immortality of the soul, in preparation for his own death.
Many philosophers, including Plotinus, Descartes, and Leibniz, argue that the soul is simple, and that because simples cannot decompose they must be immortal.
In the Phaedon, Mendelssohn addresses gaps in earlier versions of this argument an argument that Kant calls the Achilles of Rationalist Psychology.
The Phaedon contains an original argument for the simplicity of the soul, and also an original argument that simples cannot suddenly disappear.
It contains further original arguments that the soul must retain its rational capacities as long as it exists. The possibility of clinical immortality raises a host of medical, philosophical, and religious issues and ethical questions.
These include persistent vegetative states , the nature of personality over time, technology to mimic or copy the mind or its processes, social and economic disparities created by longevity , and survival of the heat death of the universe.
Physical immortality has also been imagined as a form of eternal torment, as in Mary Shelley 's short story "The Mortal Immortal", the protagonist of which witnesses everyone he cares about dying around him.
Jorge Luis Borges explored the idea that life gets its meaning from death in the short story " The Immortal "; an entire society having achieved immortality, they found time becoming infinite, and so found no motivation for any action.
In his book Thursday's Fictions , and the stage and film adaptations of it, Richard James Allen tells the story of a woman named Thursday who tries to cheat the cycle of reincarnation to get a form of eternal life.
At the end of this fantastical tale, her son, Wednesday, who has witnessed the havoc his mother's quest has caused, forgoes the opportunity for immortality when it is offered to him.
In the anime Casshern Sins humanity achieves immortality due to advances in medical technology; however, the inability of the human race to die causes Luna, a Messianic figure, to come forth and offer normal lifespans because she believed that without death, humans could not live.
Ultimately, Casshern takes up the cause of death for humanity when Luna begins to restore humanity's immortality.
Ver immortal. The paintings feature men eating magical plants to achieve immortality. The immortality of man and reincarnation were basic principles taught in the sacred teachings of the Mystery Schools.
Bonds enters the season on the verge of baseball immortality. Lewis Milestone would achieve screen immortality for the s film "All Quiet on the Western Front ".
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